Last updated: August 29, 2020. - Fortean Notes

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Last updated: August 29, 2020.

Charles Hoy Fort's Notes

Obituary Notes

[Pabst: “Box XIV. This box follows the index in the typed ms.”]

[Thayer: “Seems to be an effort to amass data of world affairs, deaths of prominent persons etc., to correlate same with celest. phenom. (?) to say we're fished for (?) What?”]

[1931 chronology in. See, NYT, January 1, 1932.]

[1931] July 20A twenty-four-hour transcontinental mail service is established between Newark and Los Angeles. [XIV; 1.]

[1931] July 19Lissant Beardmore, a Canadian, is first to cross the English Channel in a glider; greatest altitude 9,000 feet; time 1 hour 30 minutes. On July 20 the Austrian glider Robert Kronfeld crossed and recrossed the Channel, winning the 1,000-guinea prize offered by The Daily Mail of London. [SIV; 2.]

[1931] June 28According to the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment, if the seventeen States known to be in favor of repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment should prevail the national deficit, now reckoned at $906,402,224, would be liquidated by the resulting legal sale of alcoholic drinks. [XIV: 3.1, 3.2.]

[1931] May 26The authority of foreign engineers in Russia, particularly that of the American, John Calder, is extended. He becomes adviser to the Soyustroy, or central building bureau, and supervisor of the Stralmost, the Soviet contracting trust. [XIV; 4.]

[1931] May 31The government announces that the number of street waifs has been reduced by work and education from 750,000 to 4,500. [XIV; 5.]

[1931] Jan. 9The budget for the regular year is approved by the Soviet Congress at Moscow. It is the largest in the world with an appropriation of 32,000,000,000 rubles, or about $16,000,000,000, which amounts to two-thirds of the entire national income, from which all “legally employed” workers will receive 17 per cent. [XIV; 6.]

[1931] July 6The preliminary figures of the 1931 census gives London a population of 8,202,818still the largest city in the worldand the United Kingdom a population of 44,790,485, an increase of 2,021,289 since 1921, but the birth-rate is the lowest on record16.3 per thousand. [XIV; 7.]

[1931] March 18At Joliet, Illinois, 1,800 prisoners burn five buildings with three guards and three prisoners injured. [XIV; 8.]

[1931] April 30The Brazilian naval plant near Rio de Janeiro explodes, killing 150 and injuring 300. [XIV; 9.]

[1931] June 16The Labor Government again saves itself by a Liberal compromise on the Snowden land tax project by linking up urban and city real estate taxation. [XIV; 10.]

[1931] June 8The Palestine Commission declares that the Jerusalem Wailing Wall, which caused the Arab-Jewish riots in 1929, is owned by the Arabs. [XIV; 11.]

[1931] Jan. 21Although defeated in the House of Commons on an education bill, the Labor Government declines to resign. [XIV; 12.]

[1931] Dec. 14Out of eighty-six indictments, seventy-seven defendants are sentenced for stealing bread in Astrakhan, the ten leaders receiving ten years each, which is the maximum penalty for homicide. [XIV; 13.]

[1931] Nov. 19It is semi-officially announced that during the term of the second Five-Year-Plan, 1933-1938, the U.S.S.R. will concentrate on expanding and repairing the industrial plants of the first plan for domestic consumption, only sending surplus products abroad. [XIV; 14.]

[1931] May 4The Dole Commission reports a deficit of $400,000,000, which is being increased at the rate of $5,000,000 a week, and declares that the dole system will cease to function when unemployment reaches 2,500,000. [XIV; 15.]

[1931] April 16The Labor Government supported by the Lloyd George Liberals wins against a Tory censure of its unemployment policy by a vite in the Commons of 301-251. [XIV; 16.]

[1931] July 15The banks closed two days before are reopened under government control and foreign exchange is placed om the hands of the Reichsbank. [XIV; 17.]

[1931] Sept. 10In New York, Colonel Hugh L. Cooper, builder of Russia-world-greatest hydroelectric plant, declares that the U.S.S.R. is operating on a basis of State capitalism and will eventually turn to a [modified form of individual capitalism.] [XIV; 18.]

[1931] Nov. 19—Germany asks the Basle bank to convoke a commission to ascertain Germany's capacity to pay reparation after the expiration of the Hoover moratorium, July 1, 1932, and, on Dec. 7, the commission is convened with Dr. Carl Melchior, as the German delegate; he reveals with documents the mistakes made in appraising Germany's financial condition above the actual status, and declares her inability to keep on with the Young Plan payments. [XIV: 19.1, 19.2.]

[1931] March 28—The Reichstag adjourns till October and President Hindenburg applies Article 48 of Constitution to suppress “Nazi” and Communist demonstrations. [XIV; 20.]

[1931] Feb. 10—The “Nazi” (National Socialist) opposition Deputies to the number of 160 try to boycott the Reichstag. [XIV; 21.]

[1931] May 19—The mysterious armored cruiser, Ersatz Preussen, is launched at Kiel and named the Deutschland. [XIV; 22.]

[1931] Aug. 5—German banks resume business on normal basis with the Reichsbank taking in $7,140,000 and paying out only $2,380,000. [XIV; 23.]

[1931] Oct. 2—Continued liquidation of German credit abroad causes the government again to stop outflow of specie and foreign securities. [XIV; 24.]

[1931] July 31—Discount is raised to 15 per cent and loan rates to 20 per cent as the Reichsbank, which lowers rate respectively to 10 and 15, on Aug. 11, and 2 each on Aug. 31. [XIV; 25.]

[1931] March 21—Projected Austro-German trade pact is announced. [XIV; 26.]

[1931] Dec. 14—Anticipating the Basle bank's commission report on Germany, Frenchm Belgian and Yugoslav delegates combine to save the Young Plan; the report is published Dec 23 and declares that Germany's condition does not permit her to resume payments on the expiration of the Hoover moratorium in July, 1932. [XIV; 27.]

[1931] July 18—A Presidential decree, under Article 48, demands the exchange of foreign currency and securities for German money at the Reichsbank. [XIV; 28.]

[1931] April 28—Forty men are rescued from the Swedish oil steamer Castor by the British freighter Ousebridge, 340 miles southeast of the Azores. [XIV; 29.]

[1931] Dec. 14—According [to the report of] James M. Doran, Commissioner [of] Bureau of Industrial Alcohol, the production of this alcohol had been reduced by 25,800,000 gallons in the last fiscal year. [XIV; 30.]

[1931] July 21—As a result of the oil scandals aired in the courts for seven years Albert B. Fall, President Harding's Secretary of the Interior, becomes “Convict 6991” at State pentitentiary of New Mexico. [XIV; 31.]

[1931] July 4—Federal agents report that Capone's liquor system, with headquarters in Chicago, covers a quarter of the country, with a distribution of 4,000,000 gallons since 1927. [XIV; 32.]

[1931] May 31—A new Five-Year Plan, beginning in 1933, is prepared in Moscow. [XIV; 33.]

[1931] Dec 16—Republicans in the House form a Wet bloc for repeal of liquor laws. [XIV; 34.]

[1931] Dec. 17—Jack (Legs) Diamond is freed on a kidnapping charge at Troy and is murdered in Albany. [XIV; 35.]

[1931] July 7—Colonel Amos W.W. Woodcock, Federal Prohibition Administration, says in radio address from Washington that he will look after commercial violators if the conscience of the nation will do the rest. [XIV; 36.]

[1931] July 13—According to the Prohibition Bureau there were 62.995 liquor prosecutions for the fiscal year ending June 30, with over 100,000 arrests, fines amounting to $5,511.867 and 29,469 jail sentences; 21,375 stills, 5,002, 229 gallons of beer and 1,823,278 gallons of spirits destroyed, and the pending cases cut from 22,745 to 19. 532. [XIV: 37.1, 37.2.]

[[1931] Sept. 17—In a referendum submitted by the American Bar Association to organized lawyers 13,770 vote for the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment, with 6,340 dissenting. [XIV; 38.]

[1931] July 24-30—Graf Zeppelin, in its 202d flight from Friedrichshafen, makes [a scientific trip via Berlin and Leningrad to the Arctic.] [XIV; 39.]

[1931] Jan. 6—Ten of the twelve seaplanes which left Orbetello, Italy, Dec. 17, 1930, for Brazil via Spain, Morocco, and Portuguese Guina reach Natal after an ocean crossing of 1,600 miles. [XIV; 40.]

[1931] Aug. 1—The Bank of France and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York relieve the Bank of England to the extent of $250,000,000 and the British Treasury by $75,000,000, authorizing a fiduciary note issue of that amount for three weeks; nevertheless, by Aug. 5 principal national currencies drop below the gold export point, and the next day [a budget deficit of $600,000,000 is forecast, with the whips of the three principal parties conferring for relief. Chancellor of the Exchequer Snowden suggests a cut of 10 per cent on the dole.] [XIV: 41.1, 41.2.]

[1931] Sept. 30—The [National Grange's] executive committee declares at Washington that Congress cannot legalize 4 per cent beer or any similar beverage on account of the Eighteenth Amendment. [XIV; 42.]

[1931] Dec. 12—Alphonse (Scarface) Capone, after occupying the Federal and local courts of Chicago for over a year is convicted on three Federal indictments. [XIV; 43.]

[1931] Oct. 4-5—Clyde Pangborn and Hugh Herndon are forst to fly the Pacific from Japan to the United States. They had left Roosevelt Field eastward July 28 in an attempt to beat the Post-Gatty round-world record,but gave up the idea after reaching Russia; they were held in Japan some weeks for photographing military zones. [XIV; 44.]

[1931] Sept. 23—The Akron, U.S.N., the world's largest dirigible, makes initial flight over Akron, Ohio, of 3 hours 45 minutes with 113 passengers. The airship, which has a cruising range of 10,000 miles, was christened by Mrs. Hoover Aug. 8. [XIV; 45.]

[1931] March 16—Steamer Viking in ice off Newfoundland explodes with a fatality of twenty of cinema expedition on board. [XIV; 46.]

[1931] June 17—President Hoover, dedicating the remodeled tomb of Lincoln at Springfield, Ill., pleads for national obedience to law, which protects all liberty. [XIV; 47.]

[1931] Dec. 12—Germany is the seventh, and the first major power, to sign the new anti-war pact, inspired by the minor nations. [XIV; 48.]

[1931] Dec. 11—Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazis, is threatened with expulsion. [XIV; 49.]

[1931] Sept. 2—In Yugoslavia King Alexander ends the dictatorship established in January, 1929, but proclaims a Constitution written by it, so that in the elections of Nov. 8 only the Government party takes part and so has a unanimous seating in Parliament. [XIV; 50.]

[1931] Sept. 25—The League Council decides that the withdrawal of Japanese troops would settle the problem, but the Chinese demand an investigation by the League in addition. The League is unpopular in China and the United States in Japan. On Sept. 27 the Chinese Foreign Minister C.T. Wang, is blamed for the attitude of the League and resigns. [XIV: 51.1, 51.2.]

[1931] May 4—In Turkey Mustapha Kemal is elected by the Grand National Assembly to his fourth term as President of the Republic.[XIV; 52.]

[1931] May 30—In the Vatican-Fascist controversy (see Italy), the Pope places Catholic Action under the control of Italian Bishops and issues, in June, two notes and a memorandum on the subject. [XIV; 53.]

[1931] August 26—Provisional President Carmona puts down Portugal's twenty-third revolution since she became a republic in 1910. [XIV: 54.]

[1931] Oct. 13—In Bulgaria the Malinoff Cabinet, which assumed office in June after the victory of the Agrarians at the polls, gives way to a similar coalition under Nicolas Muchanoff. [XIV; 55.]

[1931] Sept. 18—A Japanese train is bombed on the South Manchurian Railway, the Japanese invade Mukden, and on Sept. 21 China appeals to the League under Article XI of the Covenant. [XIV; 56.]

[1931] July 14—The Hungarian Government by ministerial decree closes banks for three days to ease the situation. [XIV; 57.]

[1931] May 27-28—The Austrian Republic passed through the most serious politico-financial crisis of its exeistence, and its government appeals to the International Bank at Basle for aid, The Cabinet goes out on June 16 with the resignation of the Minister of the Interior, Franz Winkler, and Finance Minister Juch saves the financial situation by a contract with a London group of bankers. [XIV: 58.1, 58.2.]

[1931] Nov 15.—In Rumania Prince Nicolas, brother of King Carol II, elopes with a divorcee, Mme. Doletta, and marries her, but their union is annulled by the Rumanian courts on Dec. 12. [XIV; 59.]

[1931] Sept. 22—Japan accepts China's informal offer of arbitration, officially unconfirmed, and the Nanking and Canton politico-military leaders waive long-standing mutual differences to unite against the common danger. Sept. 23—At Washington secretary [Stimson impresses upon the Chinese and Japanese Ambassadors the desirability of ending the conflict, as the respective countries are not only members of the League but also signatories of the Kellogg pact.] [XIV: 60.1, 60.2.]

[1931] July 2—From the Manchurian village of Mackinasokow a trivial dispute between Chinese and Korean farmers with the latter supported by the local Japanese police, a Sino-Japanese conflict is precipitated which threatens Russian intervention and inspires the intervention of the League of Nations with continued anxiety in Occidental chancelleries and in Tokyo and Nanking. [XIV: 61.1, 61.2.]

[1931] April 22—The United States, Great Britain and France recognize the [Spanish] republic and Salavdor de Madariaga goes to Washington as its first ambassador abroad. [XIV; 62.]

[1931] Feb. 14—The Cabinet of General Bereguer, which had succeeded that of the late Primo de Rivera a year ago, resigns, and four days later Admiral Juan Aznar becomes Premier with a government of “monarchical concentration.” American and French bankers supporting the [Spanish] monarchy to the extent of $60,000,000 of credit. [XIV: 63.1, 63.2.]

[1931] July 6-15—There are demonstrations for autonomy in intransigent regions and for communism incited by Soviet agents or anarchy incited by the Sindicado Unico in [Spanish] industrial regions. [XIV; 64.]

[1931] May 13—All royal property is seized for future adjustment, religious freedomis proclaimed and July 14 is set for the assembly to the Cortes Constituent, to be elected June 28 to rewrite the [Spanish] Constitution and try the delinquents of the monarchical regime. [XIV; 65.]

[1931] Sept. 25—With a budgetary deficit of $27,000,000 the government places an additional tariff of 15 per cent on motor cars, radios, gasoline and coal, principally affecting the United States and Great Britain. [XIV; 66.]

[1931] March 10—Manifestos of republican leaders published abroad show the extent of republicanism in the peninsula and the alleged impotency of the monarchy. [XIV; 67.]

[1931] MACKENZIE, The Rev. Dr. JAMES CAMERON, Scot-American Educational Organizer, May 10, 78. [XIV; 68.]

[1931 McKENNA, Mgr. EDWARD, oldest active New York Catholic priest, Dec. 12, 88. [XIV: 69.]

[1931] Jan. 8—An encyclical asserting how the “divine institution” of marriage has been transgressed condemns the transgressions—unsanctified unions, birth control and all degrading publicity. [XIV; 70.]

[1931] Feb. 12—Pope Pius XI advises mankind in a radio address, speaking in Latin and Italian, which is everywhere locally translated. [XIV; 71.]

[1931] Feb. 16—Premier Svinhuvud is elected President of Finland for six years. [XIV; 72.]

[1931] May 15—In a radio world-wide statement, Pius XI outlines an encyclical of 20,000, which is published on May 23. It denounces Communism, but is lenient toward Socialism, although declaring that “no good Catholic can be a good Socialist.” [XIV; 73.]

[1931] Jan. 26—Austria and Hungary sign a commercial agreement for respective exchange of manufactured products for agricultural needs. [XIV; 74.]

[1931] July 23—Withdrawals of the Bank of England reach the record rate of $25,000,000 a day, so rediscount is raised from 2½ to 3½ per cent. In the fortnight preceding July 26 the withdrawals have totaled $145,500,000, most of it going to France, $3,00,00 in gold being transported by airplane on July 27. From September to Dec, 15 India ships £20,000,000 in gold to England, including £6,433,000 in November. [XIV: 75.1, 75.2.]

[1931] Dec. 26—Pius XI, in a 7,500 encyclical urges Protestant and Eastern Orthodox churches to place themselves under the authority of the Pope. [XIV; 76.]

[1931] Dec. 22—A wing of the Vatican Library is wrecked by the fall of the roof and many valuable books and works are destroyed with four lives. [XIV; 77.]

[1931] April 18—The New government repudiates the foreign royal credits of Feb. 14. [XIV; 78.]

[1931] April 12—The municipal elections, the first in eight years, confirm the truth of the manifestos, and two days later King Alfonso XIII and family flee to France and a republic is proclaimed (without loss of life), with Niceto Alcala Zamora as Provisional President, but with Catalonia, the Basque regions and other fiscal entites proclaiming local autonomy. [XIV: 79.1, 79.2.]

[1931] Sept. 13—With an average speed of 379 miles an hour Flight Lieutenant G.H. Stainforth establishes a new speed record near Calshot, England; in one of his kilometer laps he reaches 388.67 miles an hour; the record previously had been 340.08 miles an hour, made by Flight Lieutenant J.H. Boothman when he won the Schneider seaplane trophy. Stainforth beats his own record with 404.8, with the highest speed at 315.2, on Sept. 24. [XIV: 80.1, 80.2.]

[1931] Sept. 4—James H. Doolittle, former army flier, lowers tge Frank Hawkins transcontinental record of 1930 by making the trip in 11 hours 16 minutes 10 seconds elapsed time. [XIV; 81.]

[1931] Aug. 31—Do-X, the largest airplane, with seventy-nine persons on board, reaches New York harbor after a 12,000-mile sail from Lake Constance, Germany begun Nov. 9, 1930. [XIV; 82.]

[1931] Aug. 14—Fifty 100 and 300 pound bombs dropped by army planes from 5,500 feet on the Mount Shasta as target, fail to sink the discarded freighter. [XIV; 83.]

[1931] July 23-Aug. 1—In a Lockheed-Vega plane with a 525-horsepower Wasp motor Wiley Post as pilot and Harold Gatty as navigator circumnavigate the globe from Roosevelt Field in 8 days 15 hours 51 minutes, over 15,000 miles, via Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, Berlin, Moscow, Siberia, Alaska, Canada, with a total flying time of 4 days 10 hours 8 minutes and an average speed pf 145.8 miles an hour, thus beating the United States Army planes' record in 1924 of 175 days and 14 days 15 hours flying time. [XIV: 84.1, 84.2.]

[1931] July 30—John Polanda and Russell Boardman land their Bellanca monoplane at Istanbul, Turkey, setting a new world's non-stop record of 5,014.5 miles in 49 hours 20 minutes, beating the Paris-China 1929 record of Coste and Bellonte by over 100 miles and Lindbergh's 1927 record by 1404.5 miles. [XIV; 85.]

[1931] May 1—The Empire State Building, the tallest structure in the world, is dedicated by former Governor Alfred Smith. [XIV; 86.]

[1931] Feb. 26—The Scripps-Howard newspaper interests purchase The World of New York from the Pulitzer heirs for $5,000,000, the evening edition uniting with The Telegram. Some of the dropped employees of the obliterated morning edition start a weekly newspaper, Newsdom. [XIV; 87.]

[1931] July 27—The Lindberghs fly from Washington on a round-world flight, but are called home in China on account of the death of D.W. Morrow, Mrs. Lindbergh's father. [XIV; 88.]

[1931] Dec. 24—Spanish fliers, Captain Cipriano Rodriguez and Lieutenant Carlos Hava, begin 2,500 mile non-stop flight from Seville, Spain, to Bata, Spanish Guinea, over the Sahara. [XIV; 89.]

[1931] May 4—King Prajadhipok and Queen Rambaibarni of Siam arrive in New York on an observation tour and to have his Majesty's eye operated on. [XIV; 90.]

[1931] Dec. 13—Winston Churchill, British statesman, is injured in New York City by an automobile and spends some days in the Lenox Hill Hospital. [XIV; 91.]

[1931] Oct. 18—At the Yorktown 150th anniversary of Cornwallis's surrender President Hoover urges private relief for unemployment, making unnecessary Congress's project for a dole. [XIV; 92.]

[1931] Dec. 12—The thirtieth anniversary of Guglielmo Marconi's first transatlantic wireless signal “S” is celebrated by telephonic messages around the world. [XIV; 93.]

[1931] June 25—Dr. Albert Einstein of relativity fame expounds his new theory of the expansion of the universe, at Berlin. [XIV; 94.]

[1931] July 9—A new motor-boat record is made by Sir Henry O.D. Seagrave on Lake Garda, Italy—110.2 miles per hour. [XIV; 95.]

[1931] Dec. 16—With a world-wide audience the Metropolitan Opera broadcasts “Haensel und Gretel.” [XIV; 96.]

[1931] June 21—The Rail Zeppelin breaks the propeller-driven car record by covering the 168.4 miles from Hamburg to Berlin in 1 hour, 37 minutes, 45 seconds, with an average speed of 103 miles per hour. [XIV; 97.]

[1931] July 18—Chancellor Bruening and Minister Curtius lay Germany's difficulties before Secretaries Stimson and Mellon in Paris. [XIV; 98.]

[1931] July 13—Germany appeals for aid through Hans Luther, president of the Reichsbank, to the Bank for International Settlements at Basle, Switzerland, and the Bank renews its share of the $100,000,000 short-term credits and would participate in a loan of $500,000,000. [XIV; 99.]

[1931] June 5—The German Chancellor Bruening and Foreign Minister Curtis in London divert discussion of reparation to Germany's economic thraldom with rising radicalism. [See Germany.] [XIV; 100.]

[1931] May 23—The World Court asks for information of the League on Danzig and Memel. [XIV; 101.]

[1931] May 21—The League Council approves the establishment of an international farm mortgage credit bank, under League auspices. [XIV; 102.]

[1931] May 14—France projects a new plan for European economic rehabilitation. [XIV; 103.]

[1931- July 25-Aug. 8—Bruening and Curtius confer with Macdonald and Stimson in Berlin and with Mussolini in Rome, the latter agreeing to buy German coal for cash. [XIV; 104.]

[1931] May 11—Italy projects a trade pact with Austria and Hungary in which other European nations are invited to join. [XIV; 105.]

[1931] July 20—A seven-power conference for German relief opens in London, where it is recommended that the $100,000,000 loan be extended beyond its maturity on Aug. 16, and in Basle the Bank of International Settlements sets up a committee to inquire into Germany's immediate needs. [XIV; 106.]

[1931] May 1—Official report of 1,000,000 Communists passing the tomb of Lenin in Moscow. [XIV; 107.]

[1931] Feb. 3—Earthquake wrecks Napier and nine other towns in New Zealand with 150 deaths and over 1,500 injured. [XIV; 108.]

[1931] May 30—The Stahlheim veterans' organization gives a military parade of 150,000 war veterans at Breslau, within thirty-five miles of the Polish frontier. [XIV; 109.]

[1931] Sept. 3—Closed since July 11 the Berlin Stock Exchange reopens with prices falling on an average of 32.5 per cent with a rationing of offerings. [XIV; 110.]

[1931] June 3—Petition of Dusseldorf industrial leaders urges a dictatorship on Chancellor Bruening. [XIV; 111.]

[1931] Aug. 9—Out of a 13,500,000 vote required, a referendum for the dissolution of the Prussian Diet fails by 12,000,000. This failure strengthens the Hindenburg Administration, at least in Prussia. [XIV; 112.]

[1931] June 15—Returns from Spring sowing show that the U.S.S.R. has become the greatest agricultural nation, with 139,000,000 acres sown by collective farms, 19,000,000 on mechanized State farms, and 66,000,000 by the non-communistic peasantry. [XIV; 113.]

[1931] June 10—A State loan for 1,600,000,000 rubles is announced; unlike the first for 1,000,000,000 rubles, 10 per cent, it bears no interest, but provides participation of the compulsory investors in lottery prizes. [XIV; 114.]

[1931] Feb. 9—The Earl of Bessborough is made Governor General of Canada, succeeding Viscount Willingdon, who becomes Viceroy of India. [XIV; 115.]

[1931] July 13—Article 48 is again evoked to close banks to prohibit transfers of credit and trading on exchange, and the next day the Federal Reserve Bank of New York renews [its quarter share of the German $100,000,000 short-term credit. Meanwhile, withdrawals of short-term credits abroad had taken from Germany $500,000,000 in the last three months.] [XIV: 116.1, 116.2.]

[1931] Oct. 18—The 600 police of Brunswick are overwhelmed by a conflict between the Nazis and Republicans, instigated by the former. [XIV; 117.]

[1931] Oct. 11—The new “moderate” government is opposed by an alliance between the Nazis (the Hitler National Socialists, or Fascists) and the Hugenberg reactionary Nationals at a meeting at Bad Harzburg, attended also by members of the Kairserlich Steel Helmets and two sons of the former Emperor. [IXV; 118.]

[1931] Oct. 13—On the reopening of the Reichstag, prorogued since March 28, Chancellor Bruening threatens still more drastic measures under Article 48 until opposition to the Republican Reich ceases; three days later the government defeats a “no confidence” resolution, by 295 to 270, and the Reichstag

again adjourns till Feb. 23, 1932. [XIV: 119.1, 119.2.]

[1931] Oct. 6—Failure of the Austro-German customs pact causes Foreign Minister Julius Curtius to resign, and the next day he whole Bruening Cabinet resigns for necessary reorganization, which takes place on Oct. 9 with Heinrich Bruening still Chancellor and General Groener still Minister of Defense with the added control of the police. ]XIV: 120.1, 120.2.]

[1931] June 5—Again President Hindenburg evokes Article 48 of the Constitution for an increase in taxation refused by the prorogued Reichstag. The nation is threatened with a $500,000,000 deficit. On June 16 Nazis and Communists separately demand summoning of the Reichstag and Chancellor Bruening threatens to resign, if it is done. [XIV: 121.1, 121.2.]

[1931] Jan. 16—A commission of the League meets at Geneva to consider the Briand plan for a “United States of Europe” and adjourns until May, with Germany and Italy demanding admission of Russia and Turkey to conference, when, May 6, Briand turns it against the projected Austro-German customs pact, announced March 21; May 16, France and Germany clash in debate, and the Briand project is gradually subordinated to the Austro-German project, which, in turn, is renounced by Germany and Austria, on Sept. 3, and denounced by the World Court at The Hague, Sept. 3. Meanwhile and henceforth reparations and the world's economic crisis absorb the League. [XIV: 122.1, 122.2, 122.3.]

[1931] Dec. 16—There are demonstrations all over Germany against Hitler and in support of Bruening. [XIV; 123.]

[1931] Nov. 20—The traditional British principle of free trade is abandoned by the National Government's project for a tariff on the importations which undermine British industries. [XIV; 124.]

[1931] Nov. 5—The National Government is completed with 11 Conservatives, 4 National-Laborites, and 5 Liberals. [XIV; 125.]

[1931] Dec. 19—In Australia the Labor Government of Prime Minister Scullin with Socialist policies is defeated by 37 to 32—a repercussion of the British elections of Oct. 27. [XIV; 126.]

[1931] Aug. 24—The MacDonald Labor Government resigns and a non-partisan National Government succeeds under the same Prime Minister, with Snowden still Chancellor of the Exchequer and then as Lord Privy Seal, with Stanley Baldwin, former Conservative Premier, as Lord President of the Council and three other Conservatives and two Liberals holding portfolios in a Cabinet of only ten. On Aug. 25 the Labor half is diminished by the Marquess of Crewe taking the portfolio of war resigned by Tom Shaw. On Nov. 16 Phillip Snowden is raised to the peerage with the title of Viscount. [XIV: 127.1, 127.2, 127.3.]

[1931] MARSHON, Major W.H., the Shiloh drummer boy, July 9, 86. [XIV; 128. William Henry Mershon. (“Drummer Boy of Shiloh.” Monongahela Valley Republican, August 8, 1901, p. 1 c. 7.)]

[1931] June 21—Six English climbers under Frank S. Smythe reach the summit of Mount Kamet, the Himalayas, an altitude of 25,447 feet, the sixth highest peak in the world. [XIV; 129.]

[1931] June 24—The Cinema Control Commission removes import restrictions on American films for one year. [XIV; 130.]

[1931] March 4—With many Nationalists opposing the Viceroy, Lord Irwin and Gandhi sign a covenant ending the latter's “civil disobedience” campaign. The covenant is approved by the All-India National Congress at Karachi. [XIV; 131.]

[1931] Dec. 25—Abdul Ghaffar Khan, founder and leader of the “Red Shirts,” is arrested in Peshawar, North West Frontier Provincel the next day a mob collects and the troops kill eight “fatalists.” [XIV; 132.]

[1931] Dec. 16—Opinion is divided in India as to the outcome of the second London round-table conference, with mobs menacing homes of its supporters, with a new “no-rent” campaign declared and with the government silencing member of the National Congress. [XIV; 133.]

[1931] Sept. 15—At the second London round-table conference Gandhi demands a “political partnership” between India and Great Britain, but the opposition to British withdrawal among Moslems complicates the issue, and the conference adjourns Dec. 1 with neither success nor failure. [XIV; 134.]

[1931] July 1—Labor conditions in India are revealed by the Whitley royal commission's report; the whole system is condemned and shorter hours, abolition of child labor and better living conditions are recommended. [XIV; 135.]

[1931] June 25—Sir Chandrasekhara Vankata Raman announces in Calcutta his confirmation of the quantum theory that light consists of particles of matter in a high state of locomotion and not of ether waves. [XIV; 136.]

[1931] June 26—The Brtish Prime Minister announces that his government will henceforth underwrite India's credit. [XIV; 137.]

[1931] May 10—At a Bombay meeting of the National party it is decided that Gandhi shall attend the second London round-table conference, and on Aug. 29 the Mahatma sails for London on the Rajaputana. [XIV; 138.]

[1931] Dec. 27—The All-Indian Moslem League, at New Delhi, repudiates the Gandhi formula for complete independence. [XIV; 139.]

[1931] Sept. 21—The House of Commons passes a bill abandoning the gold standard, 275-112, the Cabinet having voted the day before: “To suspend, for the time being, operation of the subsection of the gold standard act of 1925, which required the Bank of England to sell gold at a fixed price.” [XIV; 140.]

[1931] Dec. 16—In New South Wales the Anti-Reds ask King George to end the local Parliament for its alleged communism. [XIV; 141.]

[1931] Sept. 6—A special session of Parliament gives the National Government a vote of confidence, 309 to 250; and on Sept. 10 the new budget has its first reading. [XIV; 142.]

[1931] Dec. 10—The unemployment of 2,055,741 is augmented by 3,000 through work being stopped at Clydeside on the 73,000-ton Cunarder. [XIV; 143.]

[1931] Dec. 23—In the Irish Free State Eammon de Valera adopts the slogan: “No Oath to the King.” [XIV; 144.]

[1931] Nov. 20—The National Government's “Statute if Westminster” giving full autonomy to the dominions passes the House of Commons—350 to 50. [XIV; 145.]

[1931] Jan. 25—Amnesty, after nine months' imprisonment, for Mahatma Gandhi and 50,000 others—for all except murderers. [XIV; 146.]

[1931] May 13—Senator Paul Doumer is elected President of the Third Republic by the National Assembly at Versailles, which rejects Briand on account of his German reconciliation policy. Still, this policy is sustained by the Chamber with majorities of 35 to 76 on May 28. On June 13 President Doumier is inaugurated. [XIV; 147.]

[1931] May 6—The Colonial Exposition, which lasts through the year, with a model of Washington's Mount Vernon in the American exhibit, is opened by President Doumergue. [XIV; 148.]

[1931] Nov. 4—Lloyd George resigns the leadership of Liberal party and the party is split between the tariff advocates led by Sir John Simon and the free traders led by Sir Herbert Samuel. [XIV; 149.]

[1931] Oct. 31—The Bank of France and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York receive $100,000,000 on the credit advanced the Bank of England. [XIV; 150.]

[1931] Jan. 19—The London round-table conference, n session since November, 1930, ends with dominion status offered India, with national defense and international affairs still to be administered by the Viceroy and with fiscal authority divided, but Hindu-Moslem differences remain. [XIV; 151.]

[1931] Jan. 22—Theodore Steeg resigns as Premier on an agricultural issue in which he is defeated in the Chamber and is succeeded on Jan. 30 by Senator Pierre Laval, with Briand as Foreign Minister. [XIV; 152.]

[1931] Jan. 13—The Left of the Chamber of Deputies declines to join in eulogy of Marshal Joffre, who died ten days ago. [XIV; 153.]

[1931] Sept. 15-16—Abrupt pay cuts in the fleet gathered at Invergordon for the Autumn manoeuvres produce a techinical mutiny, which is suppressed and the differences compromised, but the manoeuvres are abandoned. Sir Austen Chamberlain, First Lord of the Admiralty, saves the situation. [XIV; 154.]

[1931] Oct. 5—The Cabinet votes an appeal to the country—dissolution with the new elections—and on Oct. 27, the new elections give the National Government 552 seats with only 58 for the Opposition, which is made up of 51 Laborites reduced from 267, 4 Lloyd George Liberals, and 3 independents. [XIV; 155.]

[1931] Oct. 1—For drastic economy in service charges the Cabinet authorizes the Chancellor of the Exchequer to convert the £50,000,000,000 5 per cent war loan to bonds of lower interest. [XIV; 156.]

[1931] Nov. 15—In the Hesse provincial elections, the Nazis, Hitlerites, or National-Socialists raise their seats in the Diet from 1 to 27 out of a total of 70, with a result that the Hitler program of “no reparation [and national cooperation” is intensified all over Germany.] [XIV; 157.]

[1931] Aug. 28—The new National Government arranges for a Franco-American loan of $400,000,000. The Labor party throws out its members identified with the National Government and Arthur Henderson thereby succeeds Ramsay MacDonald as party leader. [XIV; 158.]

[1931] June 23—Joseph Stalin, Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Communist party, and hence the administrator of the U.S.S.R., outlines a new economic policy for the plenary session of the party which opens July 4: wages to depend on individual ability; a six-day work week with a fixed, common holiday; invitation to old regime experts to return from abroad; end of shifting jobs peasants released by mechanized agriculture to enter industry; peace-work system to be developed; and individual, rather than collective, initiative in business resorted to, if efficient results are shown thereby. [XIV: 159.1, 159.2, 159.3.]

[1931] June 28—The Cortes election reveals the political strength of parties in the following order, with a sweeping victory for the Republican-Socialist coalition: Prieto Socialists, Lerroux Radical-Republicans, Zamora Conservative-Republicans, Do[mingo Radical Socialists and Zana Accion Republicans.] [XIV; 160.]

[1931] Dec. 10—Señor Zamora is elected President of the republic for six years, according to the procedure prescribed by the Constitution, with a Cortes vote of 362 out of a total of 466. On Dec. 11 he is inaugurated. [XIV; 161.]

[1931] Dec. 12—The new President being unable to do business with the first Cabinet under Manuel Azana, the latter resigns and then, on Dec. 15, reconstructs the Cabinet more to Señor Zamora's liking. [XIV; 162.]

[1031] Nov. 12—The Cortes finds Alfonso XIII guilty of lèse-majesté against the Spanish people and sentences him to perpetual imprisonment should he come within their jurisdiction; on Dec. 1 the text of the new Constitution is completed and is unanimously approved Dec. 9—vote 368, with 98 absentees. [XIV; 163.]

[1931] May 21—Fascist attacks on Catholic students in Rome and elsewhere on the ground of anti-Fascist propaganda being indulged in by the lay Catholic organizations under Catholic Action (a Papal federation recognized by the Conordat (article 43) of Feb. 11, 1929) soon involved the Pope and Mussolini, head of the government. The dispute is settled Sept. 2 by the Pope repudiating all political propaganda on the part of Catholic Action and curtail[ing the activities of the federation, while gaining an expansion of religious instruction. (See Vatican State.)] [XIV: 164.1, 164.2, 164.3.]

[1931] Oct. 14—Señor Zamora reigns as Provisional President on account of the neutral religious articles of the projected Constitution accepted by the Cortes Constituent the day before. On Oct. 16 it defines marriage as a contract which can be broken by mutual wish of the contracting parties or infringement by either; and, on Nov. 3, for the first time in history, the procedure by which war may be declared is made identical with that of the League of Nations. [XIV: 165.1, 165.2.]

[1931] April 4—In Rumania Nicolas Titulescu, Minister at London, succeeds George Mironescu as Premier, and on April 18 the government of Dr. Maniu gives way to one organized by Professor Nicolas Iorga, more in accord with King Carol's domestic policy. [XIV; 166.]

[1931] Nov. 4-10—Fighting develops around Tsitsihar and on the Nonni River and there are anti-Japanese riots at Tientsin, and a special meeting of the Council is called in Paris at which Ambassador Dawes will give the United States' views if called upon so as not to offend American anti-League Senators; 16—with fighting continuing in Manchuria the League Council at Paris reviews the situation and evolves a plan for ending hostilities, which is published Dec. 9, based on the covenant and various pacts and treaties; meanwhile the Japanese troops proceed to clear the region as far as Tsitsihar with the control of 2,079 miles of the Russian-controlled Chinese Eastern Railway. [XIV: 167.1, 167.2, 167.3.]

[1931] Dec. 13—Japan abandons the gold standard, a minority Cabinet is formed under the Premiership of Ki Inukai, and the exportation of gold is prohibited, and exports constantly drop, with the year ending with more warnings from Geneva and the Occidental chancelleries, with political changes in the Nan[king-Canton combination and in Manchuria where Japanese troops continue to occupy more territory and more lines of communications.] [XIV: 168.1, 168.2.]

[1931] Dec. 9—The Council's plan provides for  commission of five to study on the spot and report, but that commission shall not intervene in direct Sino-Japanese negotiations; 11—The Wakatsuki Cabinet resigns in Japan on account of its “mild” Manchurian policy and its difficulty in preserving the gold standard. [XIV; 169.]

[1931] Feb. 8—King Alfonso XIII attempts to stop the tide of revolution by decreeing freedom of speech, assembly and press, with promise of a general election. [XIV; 170.]

[1931] Oct 21—Japan proclaims her policy as protection for South Manchurian Railway and annihilation of Chinese irregulars; 24—by a vote of 13 to 1 the Council demands the withdrawal of Japanese by Nov. 16; 26—Japan insists on her direct negotiations with China and gives five questions for mutual adjustment. [XIV: 171.1, 171.2.]

[1931] Oct 7-12 / Oct. 7—Two American observers are sent; Oct. 8—Chang Hsueh-Liang reorganizes his army and Japanese planes bomb Chinchow and obstruct reorganization; 9-12—Washington definitely supports the League and the American Consul / Oct 17-20 / at Geneva, Prentiss Gilbert, takes part in the deliberations of its Council from Oct. 15 on; 17—the Council evokes the Kellogg anti-war pact at both Tokyo and Nanking; 19—Japan consents to Mr. Gilbert's presence at the Council, but with reservations; 20—Secretary Stimson sends identical notes to Tokyo and Nanking urging peace. [XIV: 172.1, 172.2, 172.3.]

[1931] Dec. 12—In inaugurating the new Fascist Directorate at the Palazzi Venezia, Mussolini orders the Fascisti to fight depression with more work life attuned to the conditions. [XIV; 173.]

[1931] / [Centenarians, Benefactors Churchmen, Artists, Statesmen and Other Leaders Die in 1931] / [The New York Times, January 1, 1932, page 25]. [XIV; 174. Newspaper clipping. (New York Times, January 1, 1932, p. 25.)]

[1931] MATHESON, Dr. KENNETH GODON, educator, Nov. 29, 67. [XIV; 175.]

[1931] WOOD, CHARLES STEWART, vice president Association Against 18th Amendment, Sept. 8, 51. [XIV; 176.]

[1931] STEINER, FREDERICK J., architect, Nov. 12, 69. [XIV; 177.]

[1931] WILLIAMS, GARDNER STEWART, international hydraulic engineer, Dec. 12, 65. [XIV; 178.]

[1931] MORRIS, Colonel WILLIS V., polo player, veteran of the Boxer Rebellion, July 17, 55. [XIV; 179.]

[1931] LOUCHEUR, LOUIS, French financier and statesman, Nov. 22, 59. [XIV; 180.]

[1931] LOUISE, Princess, sister of King George V of Great Britain, Jan. 4, 63. [XIV; 181.]

[1931] LONGWORTH, NICHOLAS, Speaker of the House and son-in-law of late President Roosevelt, April 9, 61. [XIV; 182.]

[1931] McKECHNIE, Sir JAMES, builder of naval ships, Oct. 14. [XIV; 183.]

[1931] MAYER, CASPER, sculptor, Aug. 12, 59. [XIV; 184.]

[1931] McKEE, JOHN, New York State Chairman Prohibition party, Dec. 25, 80. [XIV; 185.]

[1931] GOFFE, Dr. JAMES RIDDLE, gynecologist, Dec. 24, 84. [XIV; 186.]

[1931] HADJITCH, General STEFAB, War Minister of Yugoslavia, April 23, 63. [XIV; 187.]

[1931] GUTHERIE, Dr. CLLYDE GRAEME, blood expert, Dec. 14, 51. [XIV; 188.]

[1931] HAMERSLEY, ANDREW S., lawyer, Dec. 4, 78. [XIV; 189.]

[1931] GRAVES, ALFRED PERCIVAL, Irish poet, wrote “Father O'Flynn,” Dec. 27, 85. [XIV; 190.]

[1931] GENOA, PRINCE TOMASCO ALBERTO VITTORIA, Duke of, uncle of the King of Italy, April 15, 77. [XIV; 191.]

[1931] GLOVER, JAMES MACKAY, composer, Sept. 7, 70. [XIV; 192.]

[1931] FULLER, HENRY AMZI, Pennsylvania jurist of famous decisions, Dec. 11, 76. [XIV; 193.]

[1931] GEHRKEN, WARREN, organist, July 14, 32. [XIV; 194.]

[1931] FORD, BRUCE, electrical inventor, Aug. 10, 58. [XIV; 195.]

[1931] FRENCH, DANIEL CHESTER, sculptor, Oct. 7, 81. [XIV; 196.]

[1931] FRANKEL, Dr. LEE K., Metropolitan Life official, in Paris, July 25, 63. [XIV; 197.]

[1931] FROMKES, MAURICE, Polish-American painter, Sept. 18, 59. [XIV; 198.]

[1931] FISK, EUGENE LYMAN, founder Life Extension Institute of New York, July 5, 64. [XIV; 199.]

[1931] DUNHAM, ALANSON MELLEN, Maine fiddler, Sept. 27, 78. [XIV; 200.]

[1931] ELLIOTT, Dr. GEORGE THOMSON, dermatologist, Sept. 14, 75. [XIV; 201.]

[1931] HAYS, JOHN R., press room expert, July 15, 59. [XIV; 202.]

[1931] HARRIS, FRANK, international man of letters, Aug. 26, 75. [XIV; 203.]

[1931] HARRIS, ALBERT HALL, N.Y. Central R.R. executive, Nov. 21, 70. [XIV; 204.]

[1931] GROUT, EDWARD MARSHALL, former controller of N.Y. C., Nov. 8, 70. [XIV; 205.]

[1931] HAMAGUCHI, YUKO, Japanese statesman, Aug. 25, 61. [XIV; 206.]

[1931] GRUBB, SIR HOWARD, expert on astronomical instruments, Sept. 15, 87. [XIV: 207.]

[1931] GORMAN, JUDGE JAMES E., a first member of Municipal Court of Philadelphia, July 19, 71. [XIV; 208.]

[1931] GREGORY, G. EDWIN, organizer of Federal Reserve Bank, Aug. 29. [XIV; 209.]

[1931] HENRY, Sir EDWARD RICHARD, former London Commissioner of Police, introduced finger-print system at Scotland Yard, Feb. 20, 80. [XIV; 210.]

[1931] HEALY, TIMOTHY M., First Governor General, Irish Free State, March 26, 75. [XIV; 211.]

[1931] HIGGINSON, Rear Admiral FRANCIS J., veteran of two wars, Sept. 12, 88. [XIV; 212.]

[1931] HOWARD, CLARENCE H., steel man, Christian Science leader, Dec. 6, 68. [XIV; 213.]

[1931] HILL, SAMUEL, railroad builder, lawyer, pacificist, Feb. 26, 73. [XIV; 214.]

[1931] HERVEY, the Rev. Dr. ALPHEUS BAKER, oldest President Emeritus, March 10, 91. [XIV; 215.]

[1931] HART, General Sir REGINALD, oldest holder of Victoria Cross, Oct. 19, 83. [XIV; 216.]

[1931] GREENLAW, Dr. EDWIN, head English Dept. John Hopkins University, Sept. 11, 57. [XIV; 217.]

[1931] DIEFENDORF, WARREN I., former manager Mutual Life, Nov. 6, 71. [XIV; 218.]

[1931] DRAPER, Dr. JOHN WILLIAM, surgeon, head of Andrew Todd McClintock Foundation, Jan,. 26, 59. [XIV; 219.]

[1931] DILLAYE, BLANCHE, Philadelphia painter, Dec. 20, 80. [XIV; 220.]

[1931] DE KALB, COURTNAY, mining engineer, Sept. 2, 69. [XIV; 221.]

[1931] COOKE, WALTER PLATT, international lawyer associated with Dawes Plan, Aug. 4, 62. [XIV; 222.]

[1031] ABERCROMBIE, DAVID T., sportsman, president Abercrombie Corporation, died Aug. 29, age 64. [XIV; 223.]

[1931] CARELLE, Admiral EDOUARD von, director of Germany's final “ruthless” U-boat campaign, Feb. 23, 75. [XIV; 224.]

[1931] HOERBIGER, HANS, engineer, “ice theory of universe” fame, Oct. 11, 71. [XIV; 225.]

[1931] EVERARD, ROBERT H., big-game hunter, Dec. 12, 32. [XIV; 226.]

[1931] EDISON, THOMAS ALVA, mankind's benefactor, Oct. 18, 84. [XIV; 227.]

[1931] CONDON, Dr. RANDALL J., ohio educator, Dec. 25, 69. [XIV; 228.]

[1931] COOK, A.J., “Emperor,” British labor leader, Nov. 2, 46. [XIV; 229.]

[1931] CHANNING, Dr. EDWARD, McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard, Jan. 7, 74. [XIV; 230.]

[1931] CLARK, SAMUEL ADAMS, sportsman, architect, Nov. 8, 56. [XIV; 231.]

[1931] BAKER, GEORGE FISHER, banker, philanthropist, art connoisseur, May 2, 91. [XIV; 232.]

[1931] BURGESS, Dr. JOHN WILLIAM, Dean of Political Science at Columbia, Jan., 86. [XIV; 233.]

[1931] BRENTANO, Professor LUJO, German political economist, Sept. 9, 86. [XIV; 234.]

[1931] ADAMS, ROBERT MORRILL, poet-professor, Cornell University, Dec. 12, 50. [XIV; 235.]

[1931] BACON, JOHN F., architect, Nov. 7, 55. [XIV; 236.]

[1931] ATTERBURY, the Rev. Dr. ANSON PHELPS, theologian and philosopher, Jan. 4, 76. [XIV; 237.]

[1931] ALDERMAN, Dr. EDWIN A., president University of Virginia, friend of Woodrow Wilson, April 29, 70. [XIV; 238.]

[1931] BAER, Dr. JOHN WILLIS, organizer of Christian Endeavor Societies, banker, educator, Feb. 8, 70. [XIV; 239.]

[1931] AGNEW, JOHN LYONS, president International Nickel Company of Canada, July 9, 46. [XIV; 240.]

[1931] ACHESON, Dr. EDWARD GOODRICH, discoverer of carborundum, July 6, 75. [XIV; 241.]

[1931] DANA, RICHARD HENRY, publicist, lawyer, son of author of “Two Years Before the Mast,” Dec. 16, 80. [XIV; 242.]

[1931] BRADY, PETER J., president Federation Bank and Trust Company, Sept. 21, 50. [XIV; 243.]

[1931] BARTON, RALPH. caricaturist and traveler, May 20, 39. [XIV; 244.]

[1931] BRANDES, Dr. EDWARD, War Minister of Finance of Denmark, brother of Georg Brandes, Dec. 20, 84. [XIV; 245.]

[1931] BOHACK. HENRY C., chain store president, Sept. 17, 66. [XIV; 246.]

[1931] BRISTOL, Professor CHARLES LAWRENCE, biologist, Aug. 27, 72. [XIV; 247.]

[1931] BARNES, AL G., showman, July 25, 65. [XIV; 248.]

[1931] ALDEN, Mrs. CYNTHIA WESTOVER, founder International Sunshine Society, Jan. 8, 65. [XIV; 249.]

[1931] AFRAMONTE, Dr. ARISTIDE, Cuban germ expert, Aug. 17, 62. [XIV; 250.]

[1931] HEMPHILL, Rear Admiral JOSEPH NEWTON (U.S.N., Retired), left Naval Academy for Civil War, July 8, 84. [XIV; 251.]

[1931] MILK, ANDREW L., former president Dry Dock Savings Institution, Aug. 5, 82. [XIV; 252.]

[1931] MELBA, NELLIE, Australian opera singer, Feb. 23, 65. [XIV; 253.]

[1931] MAYER. FRANZ, last survivor of Lafayette Post, G.A.R., Aug. 8, 84. [XIV; 254.]

[1931] LIPTON, Sir THOMAS, merchant, tried five times to lift the America's Cup, Oct. 2, 81. [XIV; 255.]

[1931] MUSSOLINI, ARNALDO, editor Popolo d'Italia of Milan, brother of Il Duce, Dec. 21, 46. [XIV; 256.]

[1931] NEILL, CHARLES ERNEST, director Royal Bank of Canada, Dec. 16, 58. [XIV; 257.]

[1931] MICHAELSON, Dr. ALBERT A., second American citizen to receive Nobel Prize for Physics, May 9, 78. [XIV; 258.]

[1931] MUNRO, JOHN, “dime novel” pioneer, Aug. 2, 64. [XIV; 259.]

[1931] MORROW, DWIGHT W., Senatpr. former Ambassador to Mexico, Oct. 5, 58. [XIV; 260.]

[1931] JOHNSTON, Mrs. ANNE FELLOWS, author “Little Colonel” series, Oct. 5, 68. [XIV; 261.]

[1931] VAN HEUSEN, JOHN M., inventor semi-soft collar, Dec. 18, 63. [XIV; 262. (New York Times, December 19, 1931, p. 19 c. 3.)]

[1931] / Charles Carroll Graves. / CHARLESTON, S.C., Dec. 31 (AP).— / [different source]. [XIV; 263.]

[1931] POWELL, LIONEL, English impresario, Dec. 23, 54. [XIV; 264.]

[1931] PUTNAM, RUTH, League of Nations official, author, daughter of George Haven Putnam, Feb. 13, 74. [XIV; 265.]

[1931] PAVLOWA, ANNA (Mrs. M.V. Dandre), Russian dancer, Jan. 22, 45. [XIV; 266.]

[1931] SIMMONS, Col. EDWARD ALFRED, publisher of trade papers, Sept. 30, 56. [XIV; 267.]

[1931] TANKERVILLE, Earl of, descendant of Henri IX of France, adventurer, singer, July 9, 79. [XIV; 268.]

[1931] REMICK, JEROME H., music publisher, July 15, 61. [XIV; 269.]

[1931] ROSE, Dr. WICKLIFFE, former administrator Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 5, 70. [XIV; 270.]

[1931] RYDBERG, Dr. PER AXEL, curator N.Y.C. Botanical Garden herbarium, July 25, 71. [XIV; 271.]

[1931] PERRIN, JOHN, retired banker, promoter of Federal Reserve Act, Dec. 27, 74. [XIV; 272.]

[1931] PENROSE, Dr. RICHARD ALEXANDER FULLERTON, Jr., geologist, July 31, 67. [XIV; 273.]

[1931] THOMPSON, HENRY, lawyer, Aug. 4, 82. [XIV; 274.]

[1931] WARD, Prof. ROBERT DE COURCY, Harvard climatologist, Nov. 12, 63. [XIV; 275.]

[1931] WALKER, JOHN BRISBEN, editor, publisher, with Cosmopolitan Magazine in 1880, in 1889 introduced monthly, Illustrated Journalism, July 6, 83. [XIV; 276.]

[1931] LE BON, Dr. GUSTAVE, French sociologist and philosopher, Dec. 14, 91. [XIV; 277.]

[1931] WATERLOW, Sir WILLIAM, former Lord Mayor of London, printer of bank notes, July 6, 60. [XIV; 278.]

[1931] WALLACE, HUGH CAMPBELL, American Ambassador to France, 1919-1921, Jan. 1, 67. [XIV; 279.]

[1931] MITTEN, JOHN HENRY, dean of American editors, Sept. 4, 86. [XIV; 280.]

[1931] MINTON, LEROY H., mining engineer and ceramic expert, Dec. 16, 49. [XIV; 281.]

[1931] MOORE, Mrs. AVA PERRY, former president General Federation of Woman's Clubs, April 28, 78. [XIV; 282.]

[1931] WARE, FOSTER, editor, sports writer, Aug. 29, 44. [XIV; 283.]

[1931] SCHNITZLER, ARTHUR, Austrian novelist, dramatist, poet, Oct. 21, 69. [XIV; 284.]

[1931] WALTERS, HENRY, railroad organizer, yachtsman, art connoisseur, Nov. 30, 83. [XIV; 285.]

[1931] TITTONI, TOMMASO, Italian statesman, Feb. 7, 76. [XIV; 286.]

[1931] TOMKINS, SILAS P., civil engineer, July 20, 100. [XIV; 287.]

[1931] MAIN, Dr. JOHN HANSON THOMAS, president of Grinnell College, member of the Near East Relief, April 1, 72. [XIV; 288.]

[1931] MILLER, Capt. ROBERT BEEKMAN, hero of Antinoe rescue in 1926, skipper of George Washington and Republic, March 24, 39. [XIV; 289. “Capt. R.B. Miller, Antinoe Hero, Dies.” New York Times, March 25, 1931, p. 23 c. 5.)]

[1931] MOORE, Professor CLIFFORD HERSCHEL, dean of Harvard College, Aug. 31, 65. [XIV; 290.]

[1931] STEIMER, FRANCIS ALFRED, sports writer and editor, Dec. 15, 77. [XIV; 291.]

[1931] STRAUS, NATHAN, philanthropist and Jewish leader, merchant, Jan. 11, 82. [XIV; 292.]

[1931] SCHALK, FRANZ, opera conductor, Sept. 3, 68. [XIV; 293.]

[1931] STOKES, Rear Admiral CHARLES FRANCIS, retired Surgeon General, Oct. 29, 68. [XIV; 294.]

[1931] MACKINTOSH, CHARLES H., Canadian novelist, editor, politician, Dec. 22, 88. [XIV; 295.]

[1931] RUBENS, ALMA, movie star, Jan. 21, 32. [XIV; 296.]

[1931] SPENCER, Brig. Gen. BIRD W., Inspector General Rifle Practice of New Jersey, July 28, 84. [XIV; 297.]

[1931] SMITH, HOKE, former Senator from Georgia, Nov. 27, 76. [XIV; 298.]

[1931] SPENS, CONRAD E., transportation expert, Aug. 14, 56. [XIV; 299.]

[1931] SHIBUSAWA, Viscount ELICHI, Japanese financier, Nov. 10, 91. [XIV; 300.]

[1931] NICHOLSON, Brig. Gen. WILLIAM J. (U.S.A. Retured), commanded Maryland troops in World War, Dec. 20, 75. [XIV; 301.]

[1931] MURPHY, PATRICK FRANCIS, orator, Nov. 23, 71. [XIV; 302.]

[1931] MOTILAL NEHRU, Indian pundit, president National Congress, associated of National Congress, Feb. 6, 69. [XIV: 303.]

[1931] NICHOLSON, JOHN T., educator and school organizer of New York City, July 17, 65. [XIV; 304.]

[1931] MACKENZIE, FREDERICK A., author, war correspondent, July 31, 61. [XIV; 305.]

[1931] McLEAN, WILLIAM, newspaper publisher of Philadelphia, July 30, 79. [XIV; 306.]

[1931] JOHNSON, BYRON BANCROFT, former President American League of baseball, March 28, 65. [XIV; 307.]

[1931] STEPHENS, CHARLES ASBURY, writer of juveniles, Sept. 22, 86. [XIV; 308.]

[1931] ROSE, ARTHUR, bicycle champion, Dec. 14, 19. [XIV; 309.]

[1931] SALTER, WILLIAM MACKEINTIRE, ethical culture leader, philosopher, July 18, 78. [XIV; 310.]

[1931] SALANDRA, ANTONIO, Italy's first was Premier, Dec. 9, 78. [XIV; 311.]

[1931] LONERGAN, LESTER, actor, Aug. 13, 60. [XIV; 312.]

[1931] SHEPARD, The Rt. Rev, WILLIAM ORVILLE, Methodist Episcopal Bishop of Mediterranean Area, Nov. 30, 69. [XIV; 313.]

[1931] OCHS-OAKES, GEORGE WASHINGTON, editor of Current History and official of The New York Times Company, Oct. 26, 70. [XIV; 314.]

[1931] SCHIFF, MORTIMER L., philanthropist, president of Bot Scouts of America, senior partner Kuhn, Loeb & Co., June 4, 54. [XIV; 315.]

[1931] VAN PENSSELAER, PEYTON JAUDON, descendant of original New York City settler, clubman, Aug. 12, 69. [XIV; 316.]

[1931] McVICKER, HORACE, theatrical manager, July 30, 78. [XIV; 317.]

[1931] LEWIS, Colonel ISAAC NEWTON, hand-machine gun inventor, Nov. 9, 72. [XIV; 318.]

[1931] O'SULLIVAN, HUMPHREY, inventor of the rubber heel, June 22, 77. [XIV; 319.]

[1931] LIGINGER, WALTER H., first A.A.U, president, July 18, 70. [XIV; 320.]

[1931] ZIMMERMAN, LEOPOLD, banker, Sept. 15, 78. [XIV; 321.]

[1931] RAGONESI, FRANCESCO, Cardinal, Prefect Tribunal Apostolic Signature, Sept. 14, 81. [XIV; 322.]

[1931] PANARETOFF, STEPHEN, diplomat, educator, first Bulgarian Minister at Washington, Oct. 19, 78. [XIV; 323.]

[1931] STE. HELENE, REGINALD GRANT D'IVERVILLE DE, Baron of Longueuil, only surviving French peer of Canada, August 29, 73. [XIV; 324.]

[1931] JOHNSON, ROSSITOR, archivist, man-of-letters, Oct. 3, 91. [XIV; 325.]

[1931] REISENWEBER, JOHN, restauranteur, Aug. 9, 70. [XIV; 326.]

[1931] SAUNDERS, Capt. HENRY HERBERT, Spanish War veteran, actor, Sept. 7m 73. [XIV; 327.]

[1931] KOBER, Dr. GEORGE M., tuberculosis prevention expert, April 24, 81. [XIV; 328.]

[1931] POMPILJ, BASILIO, Cardinal, Vicar General of Pius XI, May 4, 73. [XIV; 329.]

[1931] ORPEN, Sir WILLIAM, painter, Sept. 29, 52. [XIV; 330.]

[1931] PUTNAM, IRVING, head of G.P. Putnam's Sons, brother of late George Haven Putnam, March 12, 79. [XIV; 331.]

[1931] PENNIMAN, Dr. JAMES HOSMER, historic-biographer, authority on George Washington, April 6, 70. [XIV; 332.]

[1931] ROCKNE, KNUTE, Notre Dame's noted football coach, March 31, 43. [XIV; 333.]

[1931] RED TOMAHAWK, slayer of Sitting Bull, Aug. 8, 82. [XIV; 334.]

[1931] POWER, TYRONE, “old school” actor, Dec. 30, 62. [XIV; 335.]

[1931] PRESBREY, EUGENE W., dramatist, stage director, Sept. 9, 78. [XIV; 336.]

[1931] REVELL, FLEMING H., publisher, Oct. 11, 81. [XIV; 337.]

[1931] REID, Mrs. WHITELAW, widow of the owner of The Tribune and Ambassador at London, April 29, 73. [XIV; 338.]

[1931] ROBINS, Sir ALFRED FARTHING, journalist, author, Freemasonry propagandist, March 10, 74. [XIV; 339.]

[1931] ROSENTHAL, JULIUS C., musical organizer and composer, Dec. 13, 47. [XIV; 340.]

[1931] RICHARDSON, ANNA EURETTA, home economist, trustee Teachers College, Columbia University, Feb. 4, 47. [XIV; 341.]

[1931] PEYTON, General Sir WILLIAM ELIOT, rose from private, Nov. 14, 65. [XIV; 342.]

[1931] SANTANA, Gen. JULIAN, Cuban patriot, survivor of Lopez's expedition of 1851, July 31, 101. [XIV; 343.]

[1931] TABRAR, JOSEPH, Victorian song writer, Aug. 22, 73. [XIV; 344.]

[1931] SIMMONS, EDWARD, mural painter, Nov. 17, 79. [XIV; 345.]

[1931] SIGMAN, MORRIS, former president International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, July 19, 51. [XIV; 346.]

[1931] SOEDERBLOM, the Most Rev, NATHAN, Archbishop, Primate of Sweden, winner of Nobel Peace Prize, 1930, July 12, 65. [XIV; 347.]

[1931] SINGER, Dr. LUDWIG, Czech Zionist leader, July 27, 55. [XIV; 348.]

[1931] ROBINSON, Dr. EDWARD, director f the Metropolitan Museum, New York City, and trustee of American Academy at Rome, April 18, 72. [XIV; 349.]

[1931] ROLVAAG, Dr. OLE E., novelist, Nov. 5, 55. [XIV; 350.]

[1931] OULAHAN, RICHARD VICTOR, nearly twenty years chief correspondent of The New York Times at Washington; dean of correspondents there, Dec. 30, 64. [XIV; 351.]

[1931] OLDS, Dr. GEORGE DANIEL, President Emeritus Amherst College, May 11, 77. [XIV; 352.]

[1931] ROULEAU, RAYMOND MARIE, Cardinal, Archbishop of Quebec, May 31, 65. [XIV; 353.]

[1931] MEZES, Dr. SIDNEY E., educator, Sept. 10, 68. [XIV; 354.]

[1931] JOFFRE, JOSEPH, Marshal of France, commanded French front, 1914-16, Jan. 3, 78. [XIV; 355.]

[1931] SHOLES, ALBERT E., prominent G.A.R. man, editor, July 29, 89. [XIV; 356.]

[1931] JOHNSON, ALLEN, editor of the Dictionary of American Biography, Jan. 19, 61. [XIV; 357.]

[1931] PLUNKETT, Rear Admiral CHARLES PESHALL, commanded Railway Artillery and Destroyer Squadron in World War, March 24, 67. [XIV; 358.]

[1931] PARROTT, Colonel EDWIN A., friend of Civil War notables, oldest alumnus, Sept. 20, 100. [XIV; 359.]

[1931] PARSONS, Dr. PAYN BIGELOW, bacteriologist, Sept. 19, 59. [XIV; 360.]

[1931] OAKLEY, Dr. RUSSELL ARTHUR, agronomist of Department of Agriculture, Aug. 7. [XIV; 361.]

[1931] RUNYON, Judge WILLIAM NELSON, New Jersey jurist and politician, Nov. 9, 60. [XIV; 362.]

[1931] KNUTSFORD, Lord, “Prince of Beggars,” July 27, 76. [XIV; 363.]

[1931] LACHMAN, SAMSON, old-time municipal judge, Dec. 29, 76. [XIV; 364.]

[1931] LAHM, FRANK S., aviation pioneer, Dec. 29, 85. [XIV; 365.]

[1931] LEARNED, Dr. HENRY BARRETT, Professor of History, Stanford University, Oct. 13, 63. [XIV; 366.]

[1931] LEOPOLD SALVATOR, Archduke, House of Hapsburg, Sept. 4, 67. [XIV; 367.]

[1931] LE SENNE, CAMILLE, French dramatic critic and playwright, July 7, 79. [XIV; 368.]

[1931] WETTERLE, ABBE, French patriot of Alsace, July 24, 70. [XIV; 369.]

[1931] WHITE, FRANK EDSON, president Armour & Co., active in civic life of Chicago, Jan, 15, 57. [XIV; 370.]

[1931] WITTEPENN, H. OTTO, State Highway Commissioner of N.J., July [25, 58]. [XIV; 371.]

[1931] WILSON, GEORGE W., comedian, Dec. 24, 82. [XIV; 372.]

[1931] WOLHEIM, LOUIS, actor and movie star, Feb. 18., 50. [XIV; 373.]

[1931] WOOD, HORATIO N., retired bank president of Haverstraw, Sept. 22, 92. [XIV; 374.]

[1931] PLATT, Captain JONAS HENRY, U.S.M.C., hero of Chateau Thierry, July 30, 45. [XIV; 375.]

[1931] JELKS, WILLIAM DORSEY, Alabama editor, ex-Governor and businessman, Dec. 13, 76. [XIV; 376.]

[1931] INDY, VINCENT D', French composer, Dec. 2, 80. [XIV; 377.]

[1931] HUNT, RICHARD HOWLAND, architect, son of Richard Morris Hunt, July 12, 69. [XIV; 378.]

[1931] KELLEY, The Rev. Father FRANCIS, chaplain of the Twenty-seventh Division, Oct. 16. [XIV; 379.]

[1931] KING, Professor EDWARD SKINNER, astronomer, Sept. 10, 70. [XIV; 380.]

[1931] KELLOGG, Dr. THEODORE H., dean of practicing alienists, Sept. 20, 90. [XIV; 381.]

[1931] KUNITS, LUIGI von, orchestra conductor, Oct. 8, 61. [XIV; 382.]

[1931] JORDAN, Dr. DAVID STARR, chancellor emeritus, Stanford University, Sept. 19, 80. [XIV; 383.]

[1931] NICKERSON, Captain G. FRANK, yacht master, Aug. 22, 66. [XIV; 384.]

[1931] SHERMAN, THOMAS TOWNSEND, lawyer, Aug. 27, 78. [XIV; 385.]

[1931] MacVEAGH, CHARLES, former Ambassador to Japan, son of Wayne MacVeagh, Dec. 4, 71. [XIV; 386.]

[1931] MUELLER, HERMANN, German signer of Versailles Treaty, twice Chancellor of the Reich, March 20, 54. [XIV; 387.]

[1931] NEWBURGAR, JOSEPH E., former New York Supreme Court Justice, July 19, 77. [XIV; 388.]

[1931] SMITH, ALFRED ALOYSIUS (Trader Horn), adventurer and author, June 26, 79. [XIV; 389.]

[1931] SOMERVILLE, CHARLES CECIL LEE D'MONTRAL, “The Demon” Reporter, Dec. 25, 55. [XIV; 390. (“Charles Somerville, The Reporter Is Dead.” New York Times, December 26, 1931, p. 11 c. 4.)]

[1931] MAFFI, PIETRO, Cardinal, Archbishop of Pisa, March 16, 73. [XIV; 391.]

[1931] HOWE, WATSON, pioneer of Valley Stream, L.I., actor, journalist, Aug. 11, 74. [XIV; 392.]

[1931] HARTSHORN, VERNON, Lord Privy Seal in MacDonald Cabinet, March 13, 58. [XIV; 393.]

[1931] EDWARDS, EDWARD I., banker, “wet” leader, former Senator and Governor of New Jersey, Jan. 26, 67. [XIV; 394.]

[1931] HENDERSON, Mrs. MARY F., Washington social leader, widow of Senator J.B. Henderson, July 16, 90. [XIV; 395.]

[1931] ELLIOTT, Major Gen, GEORGE FRANK, U.S.M.C., famous soldier, Nov. 4, 84. [XIV; 396.]

[1931] HOLLY, WILLIS, secretary of Park Board of N.Y.C., Aug. 4, 77. [XIV; 397.]

[1931] DEWEY, Dr. MELVIL, educator, inventor of library classification system bearing his name, Dec. 26, 80. [XIV; 398.]

[1931] DE FOREST, ROBERT WEEKS, lawyer, philanthropist, president Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, May 6, 83. [XIV; 399.]

[1931] DAVIS, Mrs. BESSIE McCOY, widow of Richard Harding Davis, original Yama Yama girl, Aug. 16. [XIV; 400.]

[1931] DAVIS, TOM B., producer of “Florodora,” Dec. 15, 64. [XIV; 401.]

[1931] DAVIS, Dr. HARRY PHILLIPS, radio pioneer, Sept. 10, 63. [XIV; 402.]

[1931] COTTON, JOSEPH POTTER, Under-Secretary and Acting Secretary of State,, food distributor in 1918, March 10, 55. [XIV: 403.]

[1931] DEEKS, Dr. WILLIAM E., authority on tropical diseases, July 24, 65. [XIV; 404.]

[1931] FACKNER, LEONARD E., controller Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Dec. 24, 43. [XIV; 405.]

[1931] DIXON, Professor WALTER E., pharmacologist to League of Nations, Aug. 16, 56. [XIV; 406.]

[1931] FALLIERES, CLEMENT ARMAND, Eighth President of the Third French Republic, June 22, 89. [XIV; 407.]

[1931] CLINEDINST, B. WEST, painter, Sept. 12, 72. [XIV; 408.]

[1931] BANCROFT, SAMUEL R., Pennsylvania oil pioneer, Dec. 18, 87. [XIV; 409.]

[1931] COOPER, HENRY ALLEN, Wisconsin insurgent Congressman, dean of the House, March 1, 80. [XIV; 410.]

[1931] CLARKE, Sir EDWARD, dean of British bar, counsel of Dr. Jameson for Boer raid, 1896, April 26, 90. [XIV; 411.]

[1931] COOKE, The Right Rev. RICHARD J., religious author and Bishop Methodist Episcopal Church, Dec. 25, 78. [XIV; 412.]

[1931] CLARKE, SELAH MERRILL, for 31 years night city editor of The Sun, July 26, 79. [XIV; 413.]

[1931] BENNETT, ARNOLD, novelist, dramatist, painter, March 27, 63. [XIV; 414.]

[1931] CUSCHS, PHILIP ALLAIN, architect, Aug. 31, 43. [XIV; 415.]

[1931] CLEMENS, WILLIAM MONTGOMERY, biographer, editor, Nov. 24, 71. [XIV; 416.]

[1931] CHAPMAN, SAMUEL HUDSON, archaeologist. Sept. 22, 74. [XIV; 417.]

[1931] DOUGHERTY, GEORGE S., New York City detective, July 16, 66. [XIV; 418.]

[1931] DINKEY, ALVA CLYMER, steel man, Aug. 11, 65. [XIV; 419.]

[1931] CURTIS, H. JOHN JAY, president, Bobbs-Merrill Company, July 22, 74. [XIV; 420.]

[1931] BAINBRIDGE, CHARLES W., welfare worker among boys, Aug. 10, 54. [XIV; 421.]

[1931] CAINE, Sir HALL, novelist, Aug. 31, 78, [XIV; 422.]

[1931] BEDFORD, Sir CHARLES HENRY, English chemist, July 8, 65. [XIV; 423.]

[1931] DORSEY, Dr. GEORGE AMOS, anthropologist, former curator Chicago Field Museum, March 29, 63. [XIV; 424.]

[1931] EWING, Colonel ROBERT, Louisiana newspaper publisher and of the Democratic National Committee, April 27, 71. [XIV; 425.]

[1931] FORAIN, JEAN LOUIS, R.A., war painter, July 11, 79. [XIV; 426.]

[1931] D'ORSAY, LAWRENCE, actor, Sept. 13, 71. [XIV; 427.]

[1931] DIBELIUS, Dr. WILHELM, Professor of English at Berlin University, Jan. 28, 54. [XIV; 428.]

[1931] DAVIS, WARREN J., banker, manufacturer, July 11, 75. [XIV; 429.]

[1931] CREEL, ENRIQUE C., former Mexican Ambassador at Washington, August 18, 76. [XIV; 430.]

[1931] CROWELL, Dr. JOHN FRANKLIN, college organizer, Aug. 6, 72. [XIV; 431.]

[1931] CUNNINGHAM, BIG TOM, Philadelphia Sheriff, Aug. 13, 72. [XIV; 432.]

[1931] BELASCO, DAVID, theatrical producer and dramatist, May 14, 76. [XIV; 433.]

[1931] BILLOT, The Rev. LUDOVICO, only retired Cardinal, Dec. 18, 85. [XIV; 434.]

[1931] BENTLEY, WILSON A., authority on snowflakes, Dec. 23, 66. [XIV; 435.]

[1931] BEACH, EDWARD STEVENS, patent lawyer, Aug. 23, 74. [XIV; 436.]

[1931] BERTHELOT, General HENRI-MATHIAS, defender of Verdun, former Governor of Strasbourg, Jan. 28, 70. [XIV; 437.]

[1931] BAILEY, Dr. HENRY TURNER, art critic, Nov. 26, 66. [XIV; 438.]

[1931] AOSTA, EMANUEL FILIBERTO, Prince of Savoy-Aosta and Duke of, saved Italian Third Army at Caporetto, July 4, 62. [XIV; 439.]

[1931] BOURBON-ANJOU, Don JAIME de, Carlist pretender to Spanish Throne, Oct. 2, 61. [XIV; 440.]

[1931] BAER, Dr. WILLIAM S., orthopedic surgeon, April 7, 58. [XIV; 441.]

[1931] DODSON, JOHN E., actor, Dec. 8, 74. [XIV; 442.]

[End of Series XIV.]

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